Sweet Bamboo, Rough bamboo
Thaitama Bans (Sikkim)
Mainly grown for the high quality edible shoots. Poles are strong and useful in construction.
Culm length: upto 30 m
Culm diameter: 15-20 cm
Internode length: 25-60 cm
Wall thickness: Hollow culms with thick wall especially towards base
1.Distribution: It is an exotic species cultivated in the North Eastern states as the shoots are very popular item of food. Can also be grown in south Indian states of Kerala, and parts of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.
2.Recommended for cultivation in the following site conditions:
Altitude- Grows well in plains and in hilly tracts up to 1000m altitude.
Soil type- Prefers well drained black soils, Sandy clay loam or shallow lateritic soil mixed with fine sandy clay. Good drainage is essential.
Climatic condition- It prefers a sub tropical climate to tropical climate. Suitable for drier tracts
3.Planting material: Vegetatively propagated and micropropagated planting stock will be available and one year old planting stock should be preferred and procured from NBM recognized nurseries or NBM high tech nurseries for out planting.
Availability: Vegetatively propagated- KFRI, Peechi, JNTBGRI, Thiruvananthapuram, Uravu, Wyanad
Tissue culture- Century Laminates, Hapur, UP; TERI, New Delhi; Growmore Biotech, Hosur, TN, KFRI, Peechi
Season of planting- Planting during the pre monsoon showers or prior to active monsoon.
Pre planting operations- Demarcation / fencing to be completed at least three months prior to planting. Weeding, at least 15 days prior to planting.
Pit size & treatment- 45 X 45 X 45 cm cubical pits, to be half filled and kept exposed to sun for top soil sterilization for about a month.
Planting- Along with the pre monsoon showers/prior to active monsoon the pits are completely filled and planted with one year old planting stock. The filled up soil to be compacted around the plant.
Spacing- Closer spacing of 4 X 4 m for edible shoot production, 5 X 5m when planted as a species in ornamental/shelter belt plantations and 7 X 7 m for timber production.
5.Soil/water conservation measures: Moisture/water harvesting trenches (60cm X 45cm X 30cm) are to be dug along the interspaces in the alternate rows of planting when planted in 6 X 6 m spacing.
6.Management of established clumps:
Cultural practices- All dead and dying culms to be cut and removed from the third year of establishment preferably in the months of November – February.
Fertilisation- To be carried out as per the advice of an expert after testing the soil once the clumps have established. Responds well to NPK and organic fertilizers like compost, vermi- compost and dried farm yard manure. Organic fertilizers recommended if grown for edible shoots.
Irrigation- Responds well to irrigation however essential only during the first two years to ensure better establishment and quicker culm production. If grown for edible shoots watering ensures enhanced sprout production. Moisture retention through trenches should also be practiced.
Plant protection measures- If managed properly with routine pruning, thinning and cleaning, (cultural practices) Bamboo usually escapes pest infestations. Proper sanitation measures should also be adopted for the control of fungal infections.
Thinning- Regular thinning and cleaning should be carried out from the 4th year of clump establishment. All dry, dead and drying culms are to be removed from the clump so as to create sufficient space in the clump for new sprouts to grow up straight. As a regular practice these operations are to be carried out every year probably prior to the winter months.
7.Harvesting. Culms (for timber) should be harvested only during non rainy months. No current year culms are to be cut. For propagation about 20 % of two year old culms can be selectively cut from all portions of the clumps which can be made use of for vegetative propagation through rooting of culm cuttings. About 60% of the 3 year old culms and almost all of the 4th year culms can be cut and removed. However it is always better to retain a few older culms in the clump to serve as support for the younger newly emerging culms. D. asper is a preferred species for edible shoot since the shoots are sweet. In stands managed for edible shoots, extraction is done when the sprouts attain 35 to 45 cm in height. Care should be taken to see that only 60% of the sprouts extracted from all portions of the clump are removed while 40 % are retained in the clump. Shoots are collected either early in the morning or late in evening.
8. Flowering cycle: 60- 100 years.