Bakal (West Bengal )
Lam Sameibi (Manipur)
Construction, scaffoldings, pulp and paper, fencing, ornamental
Culm length: 8-20 m
Culm diameter: 5-10 cm
Internode length: 45 cm
1.Distribution: Found in states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Mizoram, Odisha, Tripura, West Bengal. Can also be grown in south Indian states of Kerala, and parts of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.
2.Recommended for cultivation in the following site conditions:
Altitude- Grows well in plains and up to altitudes of 1500 m. it can be easily grown in the plains
Soil type- Prefers moist alluvial soil, also grows well in well drained sandy and clayey soils. Tolerant to salinity and water logging
Climatic conditions- It prefers a tropical climate.
3.Planting material: Seedlings and vegetatively propagated propagules ( the planting stock) will be available and one year old planting stock should be preferred and procured from NBM recognized nurseries or NBM high tech nurseries for out planting. Vegetative propagation is very easy in this species and culm or branch cuttings root easily and even without use of rooting hormones throughout the year.
Availability: KFRI, Peechi; JNTBGRI, Thiruvanathapuram, Uravu, Wyanad
Season of planting- During the pre monsoon showers planting should be initiated and completed. In areas were artificial irrigation is feasible planting can be delayed upto December.
Pre planting operation- Demarcation / fencing to be completed at least three months prior to planting. Weeding, at least 15 days prior to planting.
Pit size & treatment- 45 X 45 X 45 cm cubical pits, to be half filled and kept exposed to sun for top soil sterilization for about a month.
Planting- Along with the pre monsoon showers/prior to active monsoon the pits are completely filled and planted with one year old planting stock. The filled up soil to be compacted around the plant.
Spacing- Closer spacing of 4 X 4 m for edible shoot production and 7 X 7 m for timber production.
5.Soil/water conservation measures: Moisture/water harvesting trenches (60cm X 45cm X 30cm) are to be dug along the interspaces in the alternate rows of planting when planted in 6 X 6 m spacing.
6.Management of established clumps:
Cultural practices- All dead and dying culms to be cut and removed from the third year of establishment preferably in the months of November – February.
Fertilisation- To be carried out as per the advice of an expert after testing the soil once the clumps have established. Responds well to NPK and organic fertilizers like compost, vermi-compost and dried farm yard manure. Organic fertilizers recommended if grown for edible shoots.
Irrigation- Responds well to irrigation however essential only during the first two years to ensure better establishment and quicker culm production. If grown for edible shoots watering ensures enhanced sprout production. Moisture retention through trenches should also be practiced.
Plant protection measures- If managed properly with routine pruning, thinning and cleaning, (cultural practices) Bamboo usually escapes pest infestations. Proper sanitation measures should also be adopted for the control of fungal infections.
Thinning- Regular thinning and cleaning should be carried out from the 4th year of clump establishment. All dry, dead and drying culms are to be removed from the clump so as to create sufficient space in the clump for new sprouts to grow up straight. As a regular practice these operations are to be carried out every year probably prior to the winter months.
7.Harvesting: Culms (for timber) should be harvested only during non rainy months. No current year culms are to be cut. For propagation about 20 % of two year old culms can be selectively cut from all portions of the clumps which can be made use of for vegetative propagation through rooting of culm cuttings. About 60% of the 3 year old culms and almost all of the 4th year culms can be cut and removed. However it is always better to retain a few older culms in the clump to serve as support for the younger newly emerging culms. If the stand is managed for edible shoots, they are to be cut either in the early morning or late evening when the sprouts attain 35 to 45 cm in height. While harvesting the tender shoots care should be taken to see that only 60% of the sprouts that too from all portions of the clump are removed while 40 % are retained in the clump.
8.Flowering cycle: Rarely flowers but does not set seed and the clumps usually survive.